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        漢字教學法綜述

        2015-09-21 16:43 來源:作家報 作者:王連盛
        摘要: 我們要深入了解每種教學方法,爭取做到充分利用長處,盡可能抑制短處,這才是我們最理想的狀態。

         王連盛(中國傳媒大學對外漢語教育學院)   

        提要:漢字是具有中國特色的文字,有屬于自己的特點和特色。在對外漢語教學的過程中,我們不能不考慮漢字本身的特點,我們需要根據漢字本身的特點來制定相應的教學方法。本文主要介紹的漢字教學法有集中識字、隨文識字、先語后文三種,同時分別闡述其優點和不足。
        關鍵詞  漢字教學法;集中識字;隨文識字;先語后文
         
        1.集中識字法
          主要以唐衛海、高萍、趙坤的《集中識字——識字教學的良好方法》為依據進行介紹。
        1.1基本概念
          所謂集中識字法,本文作者認為是就識字與閱讀的順序、任務來講的,識字和閱讀任務相對集中,一般是先集中學習一批生字,然后再集中閱讀數篇課文。
        1.2集中識字法的優點
          該文作者認為,與其他識字方法相比,集中識字法的突出優點主要有兩個:第一,將幾個漢字歸為一類交給學生,即所謂歸類識字。主要有形聲字歸類、基本字帶字、形近歸類等。第二,識字、識詞多,閱讀量大。這樣學生了解的事物多,思考的問題多。
        (1)集中識字是歸類識字
          a.形聲字歸類
          漢字的構字規律是六書:象形、指事、會意、形聲、轉注和假借。目前還在運用的字數最多的是形聲字,合體字中用形聲造字方法構成的字占80%-85%。集中識字法充分利用了形聲字構字規律,將形聲字進行歸類,讓學生形聲字構字規律,有利于學生記住生字,同時提高了學生對漢字構字規律的認識。例如,“青、清、晴、情、精、靜”一組字,它們的共同點是都有表音的聲旁“青”,加上不同的表義的形旁就構成了這幾個字。這種方法有利于學生識字時觀察、比較這一組詞的異同點,體會教師教的形聲字的形聲字構字規律。
          b.基本字帶字
          所謂基本字,就是指字形近似的一組合體字(包括形聲字)中,共同含有的,能夠獨立成字的構字部件。例如,“主”是“住、柱、往”一組字的基本字。基本字帶字就是通過給基本字添加偏旁部首的辦法引導學生利用基本字學字、記字。通過基本字帶字的方法,既能建立和利用良好的認知結構,簡化記憶,提高效率,又能防止學生記錯字形,避免寫錯別字。
          c.形近字歸類
          形近字,例如“橋-驕”,“挑-跳-桃”,“經-勁”等。對于形近字歸類的字仍然要抓住一組字的字形相同的部分,突出不同點,以利于學生記住生字。在這個過程中,教師不僅教學生識字,而且教學生識字的方法。學生不僅學習了生字,又學會了識字的方法。
        (2)集中識字識字、識詞多,閱讀量大
          a.集中識字法識字多
          在對外漢語教學的過程中,集中識字可以使學生在短時間內學習大量的漢字,有利于學生詞匯量的大幅度提高,在同一時間內學得的漢字要遠比其他漢字教學法學到的多。
          b.集中識字法識詞多
          集中識字法也要進行組詞和擴詞練習。如“作”字組成的詞就有“作主、作文、作畫、作家、作用、作風”等。
          c.集中識字法閱讀量大
          由于集中識字法識字、識詞快,數量大,為學習者進行閱讀提供了基礎,便于學習者進行閱讀,有利于學習者閱讀量的提高。
        2.隨文識字法
          該教學法主要以江美芳的《對“隨文識字”的幾點思考》為依據進行介紹。
        2.1基本概念
          所謂的隨文識字法,在識字的過程的同時,還要重視閱讀思維能力的培養,既要考慮識字,還要考慮學文。
        2.2隨文識字教學法的優點
          (1)識字和語言環境相結合
          隨文識字教學法識字是從文入手的,學生面對的每一個生字,都不是孤立的,而是處在具體的語言環境之中的。在語言環境中識字,這是隨文識字的最大優勢。有了語言環境,學生可以聯系上下文猜字、借助拼音識字,大部分生字學生便能解決。
          (2)生字教學效果好
          這是一種簡便易行的教學方法,學生在具體的語言環境中學習生字,能夠比較準確地理解漢字、詞語的意思,甚至能根據具體句型進行仿造和創生。從認識到理解再到運用,一個完整的過程下來,學生對于生字的掌握,就可以達到根深蒂固的程度。
          (3)有利于調動學生們的積極性
          隨文識字教學法還有很重要的一點,學生一邊學文一邊識字,有效地分解了學習重點,增加了許多新鮮的、不確定的教學因素,大大提高了學生們學習的積極性。
        2.3 學文和識字的關系
          筆者認為,“隨文識字”包括兩方面的內容,一是學文,二是識字。二者的關系是怎樣的?
          筆者認為,至少在第一學段,二者不是并列關系,要有所偏重。也就是說,應以識字為主,、學文為輔,學文為識字服務。
        3.先語后文
          該教學法主要以趙金銘的《初級漢語教學的有效途徑-“先語后文”辯證》。
        3.1基本概念
          所謂“先語后文”,指在漢語作為第二語言/外語教學中,在其初始階段,利用《漢語拼音方案》,先教授漢語口語,不識漢字,不寫漢字,但不回避漢字。在漢語語音基本授完,并且學習者已具有初步漢語口語基礎之后,開始認讀漢字,只認不寫。認識一定數量漢字之后,再開始描述漢字,邊描邊寫,最后脫離臨摹,開始寫漢字,同時進入聽說讀寫綜合訓練階段,培養學習者漢語綜合運用能力。
        3.2“先語后文”教學法的優勢
          (1)“先語后文”符合漢語和漢字的特點
          語言有口頭和書面兩種形式。漢語口語和書面語的差距比較大,漢語書面語的特殊性,是由漢語書寫系統漢字不同于拼音文字所造成的,掌握漢字書面語的關鍵是掌握好漢字,這就為我們漢語作為外語教學帶來復雜性,要有不同于拼音文字語言特點的教學安排。
          (2)“先語后文”符合心理學原理
          先語后文,是從有聲語言開始學習,獲得語音能力之后,再引進漢字教學。首先學會漢語拼音,利用拼音,先學會漢語初步口語,掌握正確的發音,這將有助于漢字的識記。
          (3)“先語后文”符合教學規律和第二語言習得規律
          “先語后文”作為漢語第二語言教學的一種教學設計,符合語言教學規律和語言學習規律。“先語后文”順應漢語作為第二語言習得的順序。按照先易后難、循序漸進的原則,暫時放下漢字,借助學習者具有的拉丁化拼音優勢,以較快的速度掌握漢語初步口語,獲得了語言學習的成就感,就會為繼續學習梳理信心,為以后學習漢字打下良好的基礎。
        結論
          以上,我們分別簡述了集中識字法、隨文識字法和先語后文法三種漢字教學方法。每種教學法都有自己的長處,也有自己的不足之處。我們應該用辯證的觀點來看待,既要看到各自的長處,又要看到各自的不足。我們要深入了解每種教學方法,爭取做到充分利用長處,盡可能抑制短處,這才是我們最理想的狀態。

        編輯:華文作家網

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