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        記憶|八十年前的老課本

        2015-04-18 20:29 來源:未知 作者:國際華文作家網
        摘要: 這本《開明國語課本》是由民國教育家葉圣陶編寫,而葉圣陶生平以編寫書籍為榮,他常對人說,我的第一職業是編輯,我的第二職業是老師。

        很多人喜歡懷舊,特別是對新事物產生不滿或者疲勞的時候,如今一本1932年版的《開明國語課本》又重回了大家的視線。

        這本《開明國語課本》是由民國教育家葉圣陶編寫,而葉圣陶生平以編寫書籍為榮,他常對人說,我的第一職業是編輯,我的第二職業是老師。

        《開明國語課本》的每篇課文都有配上漫畫家豐子愷的插畫,這本書在當時可是號稱教育書籍的先鋒。

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

        七十八年前——就是1932年,上海開明書店出版了一部初等小學用的國語課本,共八冊。我父親葉圣陶(紹鈞)先生寫的課文,父親的好友豐子愷先生繪的插圖。課本一上市,果然有點兒轟動,受到了教育界的普遍贊譽。尤其小學教員,他們說有的教材內容陳腐,語言枯燥,插圖呆板,孩子們見了就厭煩,哪兒來和學習興趣。常言道“功欲善其事,必先利其器”,教科書本該編成這個樣子。我父親和豐先生受到了鼓舞,1934年,又完成了高等小學用的四冊國語課本。

        父親和豐先生編這十二冊課本的時候,我已經進初中了;七十年前的瑣事,我還能想起一些來。父親寫的課文,尤其是歌謠,有些我還能背誦;豐先生繪的插圖,我還記得一些輪廓。初小第一冊第一課只兩行:一行是“先生早!”孩子們的口吻;一行是“小朋友早!”老師的口吻。兩句話都很短,初學的聽一遍就會;七個字中有一個是重復的,論生字只有六個,筆畫都不多,間架又清楚,容易認,比著寫也方便。把這兩句放在第一冊開頭,似乎還有些講究。開學那天,初小一年級生是頭一回跨進學校,覺得什么都既新鮮又陌生。見著老師,他們上前去鞠了躬,問了好;老師微笑著歡迎他們。等到上國語,老師發下課本,他們翻開一看,方才那溫馨的一剎那原來已經寫上課本了,還有像快照似的插圖哩。插圖上畫著校園的一角,葉綠花紅的美人蕉開得正盛,正是初秋時節。教課的老師如果善于啟發,定能使孩子們感到學習的快活,逐漸養成觀察和思考的好習慣。

        1937年,抗日戰爭全面爆發。上海開明書店正處在火線上,受到了很大的損失,許多書籍只好停印,包括所有的小學教科書。直到1980年,父親已經到了我現在這個年紀了,有人約他寫一篇《我和兒童文學》,他才回想起半個世紀前,曾編過這樣一部小學語文課本。他說這部課本初小八冊,高小四冊,共四百來篇課文。四百來篇,“形式和內容都很龐雜,大約有一半可以說是創作,另外一半是有所依據的再創作,總之沒有一篇是現成的,抄來的。”又說,“給孩子們編寫語文課本,當然要著眼于培養他們的閱讀能力和寫作能力,因而教材必須符合語文訓練的規律和程序。但是這還不夠。小學生既是兒童,他們的語文課本必得是兒童文學,才能引起他們的興趣,使他們樂于閱讀,從而發展他們多方面的智慧。當時我編這一部國語課本,就是這樣想的。”

        《開明小學國語課本》絕版將七十個年頭,早已很難尋覓了。忽然傳來喜訊,上海科技文獻出版社居然找到了一部完整的,將作為“文獻”影印出版,書名簡單明白,就叫《老開明國文課本》。我高興之余,遵囑寫了這篇說明。

        文|葉善文·學術中國


        更多精彩請掃下方二維碼,或微信搜索 zuojiabao1985 

        失去的歲月

        編輯:華文作家網
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